A model is proposed wherein ET in annealed SnO2|TiO2 is rate-limited by electron transport in the shell, while ET in unannealed SnO2|TiO2 is rate-limited by electron escape from the core. The model is consistent with a comparative study of ZrO2|TiO2 materials for which insulating ZrO2 cores are energetically inaccessible to electrons. These mechanistic insights provide guidance on how to manipulate core|shell nanostructures for applications in solar water splitting.
Tellurene-the 2D form of elemental tellurium-provides an attractive alternative to conventional 2D semiconductors due to its high bipolar mobilities, facile solution processing, and the possibility of dopant intercalation into its 1D van der Waals lattice. Here, we study the microscopic origin of transport anisotropy in lithographically defined four-terminal tellurene devices using spatially resolved near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM).
Cigar/cigarillo smoking has been considered a safer alternative to cigarettes; however, the health risks associated with cigar in comparison with cigarette smoking are not well understood. To address this knowledge gap, we characterized the effects of multiple brands of cigarillos on the airway epithelium using ex vivo and in vivo models. To analyze these effects, we assessed the cellular viability and integrity of smoke-exposed primary airway cell cultures.
We report a technique to amplify the electrochemical signal within micro- and nanodroplets via radical annihilation amplification. This experiment allows one to observe the electrochemistry of hundreds to thousands of molecules trapped in a femtoliter droplet, enhancing the sensitivity of droplet-based electrochemistry by 5 orders of magnitude.
This study highlights a single-donor polymer which, when paired with an archetypal fullerene, polymer, and FREA, results in systems that are largely insensitive to donor Mn. Our results may have implications in polymer batch-to-batch reproducibility, in particular, relaxing the need for tight Mn control during synthesis.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main contributor to the morbidity and mortality of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Nitric oxide (NO) can both disrupt the physical structure of the biofilm and eradicate interior colonies. The effects of a CF-like growth environment on P. aeruginosa biofilm susceptibility to NO were investigated using parallel plate macrorheology and particle tracking microrheology.
New thermoresponsive graft copolymers with an aromatic polyester backbone and poly(2-isopropyl-2-oxazoline) (PiPrOx) side chains are synthesized and characterized by NMR and GPC. Their conformational properties in nitropropane as well as thermoresponsiveness in aqueous solutions are studied and compared with that of free side chains, i.e., linear PiPrOx with a hydrophobic terminal group.
This Viewpoint provides an overview of recent developments in stereocontrolled polymerization, with an emphasis on propagation mechanism, and highlights successes, limitations, and future challenges for continued innovation.
Spectroscopic methods can have limited spatial resolution and low intensity since the signal passes through electrolyte. Here, a device geometry is presented in which the electrolyte is laterally separated from the area probed spectroscopically, so that the signal does not pass through the electrolyte.
Water is key to protein structure and stability, yet the relationship between protein–water interactions and structure is poorly understood, in part because there are few techniques that permit the study of dehydrated protein structure at high resolution. Here, we describe liquid-observed vapor exchange (LOVE) NMR, a solution NMR-based method that provides residue-level information about the structure of dehydrated proteins.
Capturing the folding dynamics of large, functionally important RNAs has relied primarily on global measurements of structure or on per-nucleotide chemical probing. These approaches infer, but do not directly measure, through-space structural interactions.