A Generalized Potentiostat Adaptor for Multiplexed Electroanalysis

Abstract

Electrochemical measurements over an array of electrodes may be accomplished with one of three potentiostat architectures: a single-channel device which averages the signal from a number of interconnected electrodes, a multichannel device with dedicated circuits for each electrode, or a single-channel device with a multiplexer interface to isolate the signal from specific electrodes. Of these three architectures, the use of a multiplexer interface is best suited to facilitate measurements over individual electrodes without the need for large numbers of dedicated potentiostat channels. We present a versatile strategy for the development of flexible printed circuit (FPC) electrode arrays with accompanying multiplexing hardware to interface with single-channel potentiostats. The FPC array was fabricated with 78 individually addressable 0.3 mm diameter gold working electrodes and characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, profilometry, impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry to investigate the morphology, elemental composition, height profile, impedance characteristics, and electrochemical response, respectively. Interfacing the FPC array via a simple connector with three 32-channel ADG731 multiplexers permitted electrochemical measurements using single-channel commercial potentiostats. Voltammetric experiments were conducted to demonstrate the reliability, stability, and reproducibility of the FPC array and interfacing hardware. The combination of these devices represents an accessible hardware platform with robust, functionalizable electrodes, a simple connection interface with commercial potentiostats, and a low cost through the use of off-the-shelf components. Our reported strategy holds great promise to facilitate multiplexed electroanalysis in next-generation sensors to increase statistical sample size and multianalyte detection capabilities.

Citation

A Generalized Potentiostat Adaptor for Multiplexed Electroanalysis
Rebecca B. Clark, Matthew W. Glasscott, Matthew D. Verber, Jenna C. DeMartino, Anton Netchaev, Jason D. Ray, Eric W. Brown, Erik Alberts, P U Ashvin Iresh Fernando, Lee C. Moores, and Jeffrey E. Dick
Analytical Chemistry 2021 93 (20), 7381-7387
DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05299