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Spectroscopic methods can have limited spatial resolution and low intensity since the signal passes through electrolyte. Here, a device geometry is presented in which the electrolyte is laterally separated from the area probed spectroscopically, so that the signal does not pass through the electrolyte.
It is widely assumed that the gain or loss of electrons in a material must be accompanied by its reduction or oxidation. Here, we report a system in which the insertion/deinsertion of an electron occurs without any reduction or oxidation.