The Weeks laboratory is inventing high-throughput technologies for analyzing the structure of RNA. In one recent result, the lab has reported the architecture and secondary structure of an entire HIV genome. Ongoing work focuses on creating new RNA chemistries, on drug discovery, and on analyzing RNA structure-function relationships inside viruses and cells.
Applying lithographic fabrication techniques from the computer industry, the DeSimone Group focuses on creating nanoscale particles using the PRINT©, Particle Replication in Non-wetting Templates, technology. Developed in DeSimone's lab, PRINT© enables precise control over particle features such as size, shape, chemical composition, deformability, and surface functionality. Multidisciplinary in nature, the DeSimone Group's research shows significant promise for novel applications in both life and materials science, ranging from improved vaccines to new medicines and targeted drug delivery approaches, to particulate surfactants and colloids for emerging technologies in robotics and displays.
As announced by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu on October 6th, Arey Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, Thomas Meyer, is one of two winners of the 2014 Eric and Sheila Samson Prime Minister's Prize for Innovation in Alternative Fuels for Transportation. Professor Meyer is recognized as a world leader in solar fuel research.
The $1 million prize is awarded for breakthrough work into converting solar energy into electricity capable of powering transportation. "We are making a major multi-year effort so that we will not be dependent on fluctuations in the price of oil," Netanyahu said. "This prize gives the researchers true appreciation for their efforts." The Eric and Sheila Samson Prize, totaling $1 million, is the world’s largest monetary prize awarded in the field of alternative fuels, and is granted to scientists who have made critical advancements."
Congratulations to Dr. Meyer on receiving such a prestigious international honor," said UNC Chancellor Carol L. Folt. "Dr. Meyer is a superb example of the kind of innovation we champion here at UNC, using research to solve the world's most pressing problems. By pairing a basic scientific knowledge of photosynthesis with the latest advances in nanotechnology, Dr. Meyer and his team are bringing the world closer than ever to making solar energy a practical, reliable power source."
We congratulate Assistant Professor James Cahoon as being one of eighteen national recipients of a David and Lucile Packard Foundation Fellowship. James was elected as one of the nation's most innovative early-career scientists and engineers receiving a 2014 Packard Fellowships for Science and Engineering. Each Fellow will receive a grant of $875,000 over five years to pursue their research.
"The Packard Fellowships are an investment in an elite group of scientists and engineers who have demonstrated vision for the future of their fields and for the betterment of our society," said Lynn Orr, Keleen and Carlton Beal Professor at Stanford University, and Chairman of the Packard Fellowships Advisory Panel. "Through the Fellowships program, we are able to provide these talented individuals with the tools and resources they need to take risks, explore new frontiers and follow uncharted paths."
Chemistry Professor and Chair, Valerie Ashby, was, along with Chancellor Folt and Graduate School Dean Steve Matson, one of the speakers as the Graduate School recently launched a program focused on academic success, professional development and degree completion for graduate students from diverse and underrepresented groups.
All three speakers highlighted the University's commitment to sustaining a diverse graduate student body and fostering a climate of inclusion and acceptance. Ashby, a faculty advisor for the program, said the Office of the Executive Vice Chancellor and Provost has made a significant financial commitment to the program. The new program's co-directors are Kacey Hammel and Kathy Wood. They will collaborate with faculty, staff, students and administrators to create targeted academic and professional development initiatives contributing to the successful degree completion of each graduate student.
Chancellor's Eminent Professor of Chemistry, Joseph DeSimone, has been elected to the Institute of Medicine, one of the highest honors in the fields of health and medicine a U. S. scientist can receive. His election to Institute of Medicine represents the third time he has been named a member of a U. S. National Academy. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2005 and the National Academy of Sciences in 2012. Fewer than 20 people in history have achieved election to all three U. S. National Academies, and he is the first individual in the state of North Carolina to be named to all three U. S. National Academies.
"DeSimone is a renaissance scientist," said Chancellor Carol L. Folt. "He was the first to successfully adapt manufacturing techniques from the computer industry to make advances in medicine, including next-generation approaches to cancer treatment and diagnosis. He provides a beautiful example of how transcending disciplines can revolutionize science and open up entirely new fields of study. We are very proud of what Professor DeSimone and his students have accomplished. He is a gifted and talented teacher and amazing University citizen."
Published in Macromolecules, Professor Michael Rubinstein, in collaboration with Ekaterina Zhulina with the Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg, describe the development of a scaling model relating the friction forces between two polyelectrolyte brushes sliding over each other to the separation between grafted surfaces, number of monomers and charges per chain, grafting density of chains, and solvent quality. They demonstrate that the lateral force between brushes increases upon compression, but to a lesser extent than the normal force.
The shear stress at larger separations is due to solvent slip layer friction. The thickness of this slip layer sharply decreases at distances on the order of undeformed brush thickness. The corresponding effective viscosity of the layer sharply increases from the solvent viscosity to a much higher value, but this increase is smaller than the jump of the normal force resulting in the drop of the friction coefficient. At stronger compression the group members predict the second sharp increase of the shear stress corresponding to interpenetration of the chains from the opposite brushes. In this regime the velocity-dependent friction coefficient between two partially interpenetrating polyelectrolyte brushes does not depend on the distance between substrates because both normal and shear forces are reciprocally proportional to the plate separation. Although lateral forces between polyelectrolyte brushes are larger than between bare surfaces, the enhancement of normal forces between opposing polyelectrolyte brushes with respect to normal forces between bare charged surfaces is much stronger resulting in lower friction coefficient. The model quantitatively demonstrates how polyelectrolyte brushes provide more effective lubrication than bare charged surfaces or neutral brushes.
Caitlin McMahon, a fourth year graduate student in the Alexanian Group, has been selected by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry to receive a 2014-2015 Graduate Fellowship. Awardees for this highly competitive award are selected by an independent committee, and evidence of research accomplishments is an important factor in the selection process. Caitlin will travel to the 2015 National Organic Symposium to present a poster of her research.
Caitlin's research focuses on the development of metal-catalyzed organic reactions, with the goal of discovering new ways to form carbon-carbon bonds and expanding the methodology available to synthesize organic building blocks. More specifically, she has developed a palladium-catalyzed, intermolecular Heck-type reaction using alkyl electrophiles - significantly expanding the scope of the widely-utilized Heck reaction. She is currently studying carbonylative metal-catalyzed reactions, building functionalized organic molecules by forming two carbon-carbon bonds in one step under mild conditions.
At the Department of Chemistry, we feel strongly that diversity is crucial to our pursuit of academic excellence, and we are deeply committed to creating a diverse and inclusive community. We support UNC's policy, which states that "the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is committed to equality of opportunity and pledges that it will not practice or permit discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, gender, national origin, age, religion, creed, disability, veteran's status, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression."