The control of the tacticity of synthetic polymers enables the realization of emergent physical properties from readily available starting materials. While stereodefined polymers derived from nonpolar vinyl monomers can be efficiently prepared using early transition metal catalysts, general methods for the stereoselective polymerization of polar vinyl monomers remain underdeveloped. We recently demonstrated asymmetric ion pairing catalysis as an effective approach to achieve stereoselective cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers. Herein, we provide a deeper understanding of stereoselective ion-pairing polymerization through comprehensive experimental and computational studies. These findings demonstrate the importance of ligand deceleration effects for the identification of reaction conditions that enhance stereoselectivity, which was supported by computational studies that identified the solution-state catalyst structure. An evaluation of monomer substrates with systematic variations in steric parameters and functional group identities established key structure–reactivity relationships for stereoselective homo- and copolymerization. Expansion of the monomer scope to include enantioenriched vinyl ethers enabled the preparation of an isotactic poly(vinyl ether) with the highest stereoselectivity (95.1% ± 0.1 meso diads) reported to date, which occurred when monomer and catalyst stereochemistry were fully matched under a triple diastereocontrol model. The more complete understanding of stereoselective cationic polymerization reported herein offers a foundation for the design of improved catalytic systems and for the translation of isotactic poly(vinyl ether)s to applied areas.
Mechanistic Insight into the Stereoselective Cationic Polymerization of Vinyl Ethers
Travis P. Varner, Aaron J. Teator, Yernaidu Reddi, Paige E. Jacky, Christopher J. Cramer, and Frank A. Leibfarth
Journal of the American Chemical Society 2020 142 (40), 17175-17186