Nonlinear fluorescence spectroscopy of layered perovskite quantum wells
Interest in layered organohalide perovskites is motivated by their potential for use in optoelectronic devices. In these systems, the smallest and largest quantum wells are primarily concentrated near the glass and air interfaces of a film, thereby establishing a gradient in the average values of the bandgaps. It has been suggested that this layered architecture promotes the funneling of electronic excitations through space in a manner similar to light-harvesting processes in photosynthetic antennae. Whereas energy and charge transfer are difficult to distinguish by conventional transient absorption techniques, it has recently been shown that these competing relaxation mechanisms may be separately targeted with nonlinear fluorescence (NLFL) and photocurrent “action spectroscopies.” Here, we present perturbative rate functions to describe NLFL experiments conducted on layered perovskite systems. The formulas reproduce the patterns of resonances observed in experimental measurements and show how signatures of energy transfer manifest in two-dimensional spectra. Overall, this work suggests that NLFL spectroscopy may be used to fully reveal the trajectories of electronic excitations by correlating ultrafast energy transfer pathways to fluorescence emission from the thickest quantum wells.