Investigating Electrosprayed Droplets Using Particle-into-Liquid Sampling for Nanoliter Electrochemical Reactions
Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a powerful ionization technique that can generate charged solvent droplets and bare analyte ions from sample solutions. Despite seeing extensive use in mass spectrometry due in part to the low internal energy deposited into the ions formed during ionization, some unknowns persist regarding the exact dynamics of droplet breakup and molecule behavior during spray, and research is still underway regarding how various types of molecules acquire charge during the ESI process. Previously, the authors introduced a novel aerosol measurement technique, particle-into-liquid sampling for nanoliter electrochemical reactions (PILSNER). The current work introduces a new method utilizing PILSNER for the examination of the particles generated during ESI using simple analysis techniques with a commercially available potentiostat. This technique is applied in this work for the detection of charges on electrosprayed droplets, including the estimation of the number of charges on individual ESI droplets using a fluorescent proxy. This technique provides an additional tool for the exploration of the complex process of droplet generation and ion liberation during ESI.
Investigating Electrosprayed Droplets Using Particle-into-Liquid Sampling for Nanoliter Electrochemical Reactions Nathaneal A. Park, Gary L. Glish, and Jeffrey E. Dick Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 2023 34 (2), 320-327 DOI: 10.1021/jasms.2c00338