Probing drift velocity dispersion in MAPbI(3) photovoltaic cells with nonlinear photocurrent spectroscopy
Conventional time-of-flight (TOF) measurements yield charge carrier mobilities in photovoltaic cells with time resolution limited by the RC time constant of the device, which is on the order of 0.1–1 µs for the systems targeted in the present work. We have recently developed an alternate TOF method, termed nonlinear photocurrent spectroscopy (NLPC), in which carrier drift velocities are determined with picosecond time resolution by applying a pair of laser pulses to a device with an experimentally controlled delay time. In this technique, carriers photoexcited by the first laser pulse are “probed” by way of recombination processes involving carriers associated with the second laser pulse. Here, we report NLPC measurements conducted with a simplified experimental apparatus in which synchronized 40 ps diode lasers enable delay times up to 100 µs at 5 kHz repetition rates. Carrier mobilities of ∼0.025 cm2/V/s are determined for MAPbI3 photovoltaic cells with active layer thicknesses of 240 and 460 nm using this instrument. Our experiments and model calculations suggest that the nonlinear response of the photocurrent weakens as the carrier densities photoexcited by the first laser pulse trap and broaden while traversing the active layer of a device. Based on this aspect of the signal generation mechanism, experiments conducted with co-propagating and counter-propagating laser beam geometries are leveraged to determine a 60 nm length scale of drift velocity dispersion in MAPbI3 films. Contributions from localized states induced by thermal fluctuations are consistent with drift velocity dispersion on this length scale.
Ouyang, Z., Yan, L., You, W., & Moran, A. M. (2022). Probing drift velocity dispersion in mapbi3 photovoltaic cells with nonlinear photocurrent spectroscopy. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 157(17), 174202. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0116789